Low Flow Shower Head

A few weeks ago I was watching Fight For Planet A, and one of the households was able to make a significant dent in their carbon emissions by replacing a high flow shower head with a low flow shower head. If you’re in the mood to watch Craig Reucassel having fun with a bucket of water then it’s good for a laugh (episode one, about 18 minutes in).

I’ve been wondering since we moved in if the shower head in this house was a low flow one, and suspicious that it wasn’t. After watching how Reucassel did his test, I taught the eldest child how to use a stop watch, grabbed a bucket, and into the bathroom we went.

If Reucassel’s test was good for a laugh, ours would have been high comedy, and we should have filmed it. Unlike his small, reasonably sized bucket, I went for a much larger one that it turns out I can’t hold above my head for any period of time when it’s full of water. I got the wobbles up, tipped some really cold water down myself, and proceeded to shriek loudly while trying to dance out of my own way. We aborted the test well before the minute was up.

Old shower head

Truly, memories are made of this.

Once we had the bucket full of water, which had no measuring lines in it at all, we then tried to measure the water using a measuring jug from the kitchen. That was easy compared to the half hour I spent trying to work out the formula to convert the water we had measured and the awkward length of time that we had stopped at. Despite the challenges, we arrived at a flow rate of 20L per minute.

A shower head with a WELS rating of 3 uses approximately 9L per minute from what I could see at Bunnings. They also had shower heads with a WLES 4 rating that used 7L per minute, but this took the price from $20 to $200. I could have tried to shop around but, with Melbourne still in lockdown, I decided that a change I could make today was better than one that I might forget about and not do for months or years.

New shower head

Swapping the shower head only took a few minutes to do. I was nervous what the new shower quality would be like, and it was so much better. Our shower has always played the delightful game of boiling hot, then surprise icy cold, followed by another round of boiling hot. With the new shower head there was none of that; I set the temperature, and it stayed that way. I have no idea why this is, but I could get used to this new way of living rather quickly.

The easier way to test

The simpler way to test water flow, the one that isn’t as good for television, is to capture the water for 15 seconds and then multiply by 4 to get the rate for a minute. A WELS 3 shower head, such as the one we installed, would have 2.25L in 15 seconds, compared to 5L for our old shower head.

Why does this matter for carbon reduction?

There are two components here that play into carbon reduction: heating and water supply.

For homes such as ours, heating the water comes from gas. Every time we have a shower, we are burning fossil fuels to heat the water. Gas might be seen as a transition fuel away from coal, but those fugitive emissions are a massive concern. If you heat less water for showers, you use less gas in the process, which directly reduces your emissions.

The water supply is a less obvious problem. Water has to be collected, stored, treated, and then pumped to your home. Once you’re done with it, the water has to be collected in the sewers, processed, and is then pumped out again. A lot goes into making the water supply invisible to us, and it takes an environmental toll.

A third benefit for my project is that if I’m spending less money on utilities, I’ll have more money available for other carbon reduction measures. This saving is a drop in the ocean (sorry, I couldn’t help it) but it will add up over the course of a year.

If you’re playing along at home…

…how much water and energy could your family save by switching to a low flow shower head? If you’ve done this already, please share in the comments below what impact it had on your consumption.

Winter Utilities Check-up

The winter of 2020 has been a particularly unusual season for us. Lockdown to manage the pandemic has meant that we’ve been at home almost constantly and, with access to allied health heavily restricted, my musculoskeletal issues have flared up and I’ve felt the cold badly. It’s challenging to care about long term environmental impacts when you’re struggling to get through each day with health and sanity intact. As a result, showers have been longer and the thermostat has been set higher.

Our winter utility bills have now arrived, and with trepidation I finally looked at the numbers. I’m thrilled to report that our positive structural changes to the home have more than offset our negative behavioural changes.


The big winner here was in the electricity bill. According to the usage summary, our electricity usage has decreased from 5.26kWh to 4.16kWh per day, which is a drop of 20.91%. If I drill a bit deeper into the bill, this picture becomes even better. For the 91 days of this bill period, we imported 378.387kWh of electricity. During the same period, we exported 399.996kWh of electricity. Put those numbers together, and it means we were a net exporter of 21.609kWh over the winter months. Due to heating and hours of sunlight, our winter electricity bill is always the worst for the year. This means that in a single year we’ve managed to become carbon negative on our electricity usage, so I am ridiculously thrilled by our progress here.


Our second big win was in the gas bill. According to the usage summary, we’ve gone from 273.07MJ to 185.90MJ, which is a 31.92% decrease. This means our indicative greenhouse gas emissions have dropped from 0.9 tonnes to 0.6 tonnes compared to last year. We still have a long way to go here, but I’m very pleased with how far we’ve already come.

So Why The Change?

There are probably dozens of small changes that we’ve made over the past year that I’m blind to, but the key ones for this are:

  1. Solar panels – our real electricity usage increased over the period, but those changes were more than offset by using our own power.
  2. Split system air conditioner – we still use the ducted gas heating in the house, but by using the split system to heat the house during the daylight hours it maintains the heat from the gas. I have set the temperature on the split system one degree higher than the gas thermostat, which is in the same room, so the gas only turns on when the split is no longer up to the job.
  3. Insulation – we insulated the bedrooms and study, so we are losing less heat through the walls. This is particularly noticeable in my bedroom, which is blatantly warmer than the rest of the house when I open the door in the morning. I suspect this insulation is how the split system is able to maintain the warmth throughout the day.
  4. Hot water pilot light – our hot water system is a continuous hot water system that runs on gas. I turn the pilot light off when it isn’t in use, which is most of the time. If I want a small amount of hot water I now boil the kettle and use that. This means that I’m only heating the water I want to use, so we aren’t wasting a lot of water down the drain waiting for it to heat up and clear the pipes either. This has spilled over into cooking, where I will now use the kettle to pre boil water for boiling food.

For me there is a critical takeaway to looking at these power bills: we dramatically dropped our usage through structural change without much behavioural change. Climate action hasn’t been front and centre of our minds this year, but we’ve made a huge improvement without sacrificing a single creature comfort. Keeping up these changes doesn’t require any effort for us, they’re just normal now.

If you’re playing along at home…

..what are some structural changes you could make that will permanently reduce your emissions without compromising your lifestyle? Please share your ideas in the comments below.

Split System Heating and Cooling

As I mentioned in my previous post, we have now created a heating and cooling zone in our main room by rebuilding a wall and fitting a door. If we’re inside during the day we spend most of our time either in this room or in our study, so converting our heating in this space to zero emissions sources will put a significant dent in the emissions generated in our home.

The heating unit that we decided to go with is a heat pump, alternatively known as a split system or a reverse cycle air conditioner. Switching to this technology is ranked #42 on Project Drawdown. In traditional heating, you can convert one unit of energy into one unit of heat. With a heat pump you aren’t creating heat so much as moving it from one place to another, which means the heat output can be significantly higher than the energy input. This is the same concept used in refrigeration.

Heat pump heating and coolingEfficiency varied considerably across the units that we looked at. We decided to go with the most efficient unit that we could afford, and were quite surprised by how many units cost more with lower efficiency. We went with a 5-star Mitsubishi unit that we bought at Bunnings. Heating is rated at 3.2kW output for 0.65kW input, and cooling is rated at 2.5kW for 0.51kW input. Our unit is considered too small for the space, but we wanted to size it against our solar panels instead of our room size.

Our hope is that installing this unit will mean that we no longer run the gas ducted heating at all in a best case scenario, or only on the coldest days in a worst case scenario. In either case, we expect our heating bills to be slashed. By switching to electricity we generate ourselves instead of using natural gas, the unit will potentially pay for itself in fuel savings before it is out of warranty.

If you’re playing along at home…

…how much could you increase the energy efficiency of your home by switching to a heat pump for heating and cooling? If you already have a system for cooling, how much gas could you save by also using it to heat? Please share your experience in the comments below.

Create Heating and Cooling Zones

At some point in the past, our house has undergone a series of renovations to combine three small rooms into open plan living. While we really enjoy the bright spaciousness of our main room, having it open to the hallway meant that we couldn’t shut off this part of the house to separate out heating and cooling zones.

The benefit of separate heating and cooling zones is that you only have to heat or cool part of your house instead of the entire building. By only adjusting the temperature in the part of the house that you are using, you can save a significant amount of money on heating and cooling costs, and the energy use that goes with it.

Door with glass panelsWe were able to separate our main living area from the hallway by rebuilding the wall that had originally separated the two spaces. This was the wall where the cornice had fallen down, leaving a gaping hole in the ceiling. It was an opportunity to create something better than what had been there before, so we widened the doorway and chose a door with glass panels to retain the natural light in our hallway.

The whole project cost us approximately $600 to complete, and it has made such a difference to the temperature in the house. On colder nights we shut the door, and the heat generated in the kitchen is enough to keep the room warm. During a recent hot spell we kept the door shut, and it stopped heat from flowing through our large, north facing windows into the cooler bedrooms. This passive difference isn’t huge, at only one or two degrees, but already it has been the difference between running the gas ducted heating system and not running it.

If you’re playing along at home…

…are you able to create zones in your home to reduce the amount of energy required to heat and cool the space? Please share in the comments below the approach you took and the results you achieved.

Turn Off Pilot Lights

Our home currently has three gas appliances: the stove, the ducted heating, and the continuous hot water system. We’re focusing on other projects around the house first, which means that we haven’t got the budget available to replace these with electric versions.

The easiest – and cheapest – way that we could find to make an immediate difference here was to turn off the pilot light for the hot water system. There is a flame that burns continually, and the system increases the flow of gas as water is being used, so for 24 hours each day we were using gas.

When we looked at our water usage, leaving the hot water system turned on didn’t make much sense. There are four people living in the house, and between us we might spend at most half an hour using the water to shower and wash the dishes. That means for more than 23 hours each day we were burning gas for no point whatsoever.

Gas water heater

Our system is inside on the laundry wall, so we don’t have to go outside to use it. There is a button to press to turn it off and you have to press a whopping two buttons to turn it back on. The final button allows it to heat up to the set temperature. It’s a remarkably simple system and takes only a few seconds to set.

Beyond the bigger climate picture and our gas bill, turning off the pilot light is important because this is carbon that was being emitted inside our house. Carbon levels above 1,000 parts per million (ppm) can have adverse effects on human health, ranging from headaches and difficulty concentrating in the short term to changes in bone density and body metabolism in the long term. That might sound like a high number – outside levels for September were 408.55 ppm at the Mauna Loa observatory – but levels can easily pass 1,000 ppm inside closed environments such as offices, classrooms and homes.

If you’re playing along at home…

…do you have any pilot lights that you can turn off when they aren’t in use? Please share in the comments below ways that you have reduced passive fossil fuel use around your home.

Insulating Behind Wall Panels

As part of our solar installation, we needed to get the asbestos removed from the work site. The main areas were our electrical switchboard and the eaves under the roof. We also had two asbestos panels beside the front door, and the company was willing to add those to the job for free. With the exception of the asbestos flue for our hot water system, this now means that the outside of our house is asbestos free.

We saw the removal of those asbestos wall panels as a great opportunity to check the insulation of our external walls, and there was no surprise at all that they were just empty cavities. Walls in this area should have a minimum R insulation value of 2.8 and, since this is a north facing wall, we wanted to go as high as we could.

Adding insulation to the wallThe highest insulation rating that we could find was R 7.0, and we had to get it as a special order, which only took a few days to arrive. We had the right amount of insulation to do the job, but we hit the first obvious hurdle – it didn’t fit. The batts were so thick that it took three adults to compress it inside. Unfortunately, when you start to compress this type of product, you also start to reduce the R rating.

After a quick strategy meeting, we agreed to carefully split the batts down the middle to make them half the thickness. This had the unfortunate effect of reducing their R rating, but it did mean that we could get them in the wall.

Given the price of this insulation, we would have been much better off measuring all of the internal dimensions before choosing a product, so I’m glad that we made this mistake with a smaller quantity instead of buying enough for the whole house. The surplus insulation has been put in the roof where it will be used to patch any gaps once we have a chance to get up there.

If you’re playing along at home…

…do you have any external panels like these that you could remove to add insulation to your external walls? Please share in the comments below if you have made similar modifications to your house and how it went for you.

September School Climate Strikes

As part of the global climate strikes on 20-27 September, I took our eldest daughter out of school, collected the little one at lunch time, and together our family went to the Melbourne rally. For the kids this was probably one of the most exciting things we’ve done all year – they got to go on a train, wave posters, chant with a large crowd, and all in exchange for catching up on the missed classwork over the school holidays. For us parents it was also a bit exciting – preventing our toddler from whacking people with her poster, getting separated in the crowd, and realising half way there that we forgot to bring the baby wrap.

Melbourne Climate Strike September 2019

In response to the strikes, I spent one or two days reading comments that the children should have been in school learning instead of being out and participating in democracy. Those arguments faltered and vanished fairly quickly, and were replaced with astonishing observations that it wasn’t older generations who are responsible for climate change, but younger generations with their rampant consumerism and materialistic ways.

Who do you think taught them to be that way? We did. The generations they looked to for an example.

With the strikes our leaders complained that children should be in school learning, and the response from our children was that there’s no point learning if we don’t act on what we teach them. To instead complain that our children are part of the problem when they are doing what we have taught them to do is just astonishing.

If you have been able to watch the speeches during the youth protests without feeling a degree of shame then either you’ve cleaned up your act or you don’t realise how dire the situation is. I’m incapable of watching Greta Thunberg’s UN address without crying. I imagine my little girls in her place in a decade, a time in which it will be too late to do anything but stop the disaster from worsening further, and I realise how complacent I have been since the day I became old enough to do anything about it.

There’s an interesting thing about shame; you can either lash out at those who make you feel it, or you can do something about it. Based on my Facebook feed, a lot of people who I thought knew better have chosen the lashing out option. I understand, because it’s very difficult to look at yourself and acknowledge all the ways in which you have failed. It takes a strong person to stare at the truth and see it as a call to action. There is tension in knowing that the time to correct past mistakes is almost over, and an incredible fear when you realise that nobody can tell you the quick solution to make that correction.

Our own parents aren’t coming to the rescue, and the true shame is that our children are starting to realise that about their parents too.

When the children of the world asked adults to strike with them this time, there was no way that I was going to say no. We might not be able to do much as individuals, but we can accomplish beautiful things as a collective. In a decade from now, my eldest will be Greta Thunberg’s age. When she asks what we did, I can tell her about the changes that we made to our lives, and I can also tell her that for one day we stood up as a family, we made our voices heard, and we joined in with something bigger than ourselves.

Melbourne Climate Strike September 2019

If you’re playing along at home…

…did you and/or your children attend the climate strike? What did you learn through the experience?

Solar Panel Installation

On Monday last week we were able to complete the first major piece of work on our journey to becoming carbon negative: our photovoltaic system was installed.

Solar panels on the roof

We have 10 panels on our north-facing roof for a combined capacity of 2.75kW. The power company estimates that we will generate an average of between 5.62 – 11.82kWh electricity per day, as per the table below:

System Performance Estimate

Based on our electricity bills, our daily generation will either cover or surpass our daily usage. This means that we will be either carbon neutral or carbon negative for our electricity consumption throughout the year. The electricity that we don’t use will be exported to the grid, which will help the it to reduce its emissions by a tiny amount too.

The electrical inspector came by on Tuesday this week and turned on the system for us. We still need to sort out the changes to our electricity plan so that we are paid for what we export to the grid, but from the environmental perspective we are done. We got dressed up, we went out, and we celebrated.

If you’re playing along at home…

…have you installed solar panels? Please share in the comments below how much of your electricity usage you were able to generate yourself.

Reflecting on One Year of Climate Action

1[1]Tomorrow marks the first anniversary of this blog, and I wanted to use it as an opportunity to reflect on our mission to change our carbon emissions to an overall negative level. We’ve learned a lot in that time about climate change and, equally importantly, we’ve learned a lot about ourselves.

We can’t do everything at once

It’s all well and good to say that we’re going to stop contributing to pollution tomorrow. In practice, the only way I can think of to achieve it that quickly is death, and I’d rather downgrade that solution to Plan B (or Z). So much of our culture is based upon technologies and resources that harm our planet; the scope of the problem is so huge that if you tackle it all at once you’ll burn out quickly and end up in despair. It’s better to make one successful change at a time than to attempt fifty and succeed at none of them.

We’re more powerful than we knew

We don’t need to rely on governments to start making positive changes to the way we live our lives. If we want to plant some vegetables to reduce food miles or recycle our soft plastics instead of sending them to landfill then we have that power. We might not be able to do much at a global scale about climate change, but that certainly doesn’t limit the things that we can do at home. Taking control of our actions and being proactive tends to spill over into other areas of our lives, and that’s a great bonus.

The faster we change the easier it becomes

There is a carbon budget that is discussed in climate change models. This budget is the amount of carbon that can be released into the atmosphere before we reach key levels of temperature increase. One of the biggest problems with the climate budget is that nobody knows exactly what it is. I could spend days researching the exact levels predicted by different models, or I could simplify it all to a simple truth: the less we pollute today, the more wriggle room we have tomorrow. Making choices now that reduce our emissions means our children will have more options for further improvements.

Sometimes you take one step backwards so you can take two steps forwards

Earlier this year I spent a few months working full time out of the home. The cash injection was significant for our family, but I felt very uncomfortable about how long I spent behind the wheel every day in order to get to work. At a time when we were trying to reduce our emissions I was going out and increasing them, and it felt hypocritical. We used that additional income to fund changes around our house that will permanently reduce our emissions. The additional emissions might have been philosophically unpleasant, but I estimate that those reductions will compensate for them within 1-2 years.

If you’re playing along at home…

…has attempting to tackle climate change taught you anything about yourself or the world around you? Please share in the comments below what has captured your thoughts in this process.

A House Full of Tradies

At the start of this month I applied for a rebate from Solar Victoria for a new PV system for the house. As part of that installation, we’ve had to get the external asbestos removed from the house. Since there was also asbestos behind our switchboard, this was a job that required multiple trades to do the work.

Working on this house has definitely been a voyage of discovery. “Dodgy as <insert expletive>” is a phrase that gets used around here with a high degree of frequency and creativity. Between a long list of poorly executed renovations and the mere age of the house, we’ve realised that the amount of work required to bring this place up to the standard that we want is going to take a lot longer than we initially planned.

Problem One – Electrics

We’ve now removed the asbestos from the switchboard, and we had hoped that would be the worst of it. Ha ha, no. The wiring from the street brings the standard capacity, but the wiring from the fuse to the switchboard is only half that capacity. The sparkie thought that our solar installers will need to upgrade this in order to connect the panels. Regardless of how that aspect goes, he advised us that we can’t convert our gas appliances to electric versions until the wiring is upgraded. To make this even better, we’ve got the old style of wiring that’s wrapped in cloth, and I’ve been happily assured that this is the sort of cabling that eventually becomes a fire risk.

Problem Two – Gas

Essentially another aspect of the previous problem, without a cabling upgrade to the house we don’t have the capacity to convert any of our existing gas appliances to electric replacements. This means that if any break down and need to be urgently replaced, we’d probably be stuck replacing them with a new gas model, and that is completely out of the question for us.

Problem Three – Insulation

We had two asbestos panels removed from the front wall of the house, and it became immediately obvious that the walls have no insulation in them at all. The minimum insulation rating for walls in Melbourne is currently recommended at R2.8. This is a great opportunity to upgrade the insulation for that part of the wall, so we’ve ordered some insulation rated at R7.0 and it should arrive next week. While that’s lovely for this part of the house, it does leave us with the question about what to do for the rest of it. If we put insulation inside the walls, we’re going to need to take down the plaster from inside to fit the insulation in, and that will be some major work. There are insulation options that can be applied to the external walls, but these will change the look and feel of our house. Regardless of what we eventually decide to do, the first step is going to be lengthy research.

Problem Four – Windows

We already knew the windows were a bit below standard, and eventually we want to upgrade them to double glazing or better, but we were surprised by how much the woodwork around them suffered during the asbestos removal. The frames had been poorly maintained, and sections fell off during the work, so we’re going to need to look into this work a lot sooner than planned. I’d like to say this came as a shock, but after an entire stretch of cornice fell off the living room ceiling last week… *shrug*

Problem Five – That <insert expletive> Cornice

Hole in the roof
Because who doesn’t love cabling just hanging through the ceiling?

Speaking off which, where the cornice fell off the ceiling has left a gap in the plaster. The warm air from our heater is now rising into our roof space and happily flowing out through the open eaves. It was 2°C outside this morning and a balmy 10°C inside the house when we woke up. The children were inexplicably keen to snuggle up with me under a mound of blankets. I do cherish their affection, but it makes it difficult to convince them to get up and dressed for the day. Our carbon use is going to skyrocket until we get some of these holes patched up.

If you’re playing along at home…

…do you have a long list of structural challenges that are stopping you from reducing your footprint? Please share in the comments below the obstacles that you’re facing in your home.